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The Efficacy of Metacognitive Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Show all categories in Sound. Metacognitive Therapy for Anxiety and Depression Store info. Go to store. Finally, future research needs to examine the efficacy of MCT applied as a transdiagnostic treatment for different clinical populations. In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis indicate that MCT is highly effective in reducing symptoms of a range of primary targeted psychological complaints along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and maladaptive metacognitions.

There are preliminary indications that MCT may be more effective than other therapeutic interventions, including cognitive behavioral therapies. However, more studies are needed in order to investigate the accuracy of these preliminary findings. NN and NM conceived the study. NN conducted the systematic literature search, screened studies for eligibility, and extracted data from the relevant publications.

NM conducted the statistical analyses. NN wrote the first draft of the Introduction, Methods, and Discussion sections of the manuscript. NM wrote the first draft of the Results section and contributed to revisions and modifications of the manuscript. Both authors approved the final version.

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The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol.

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Published online Nov Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Clinical and Health Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Jul 6; Accepted Oct The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Metacognitive therapy MCT continues to gain increased ground as a treatment for psychological complaints.

Simple technique for positive focus; Cognitive therapy, CBT, against anxiety, depression, OCD

Keywords: metacognitive therapy, meta-analysis, psychotherapy, anxiety, depression, psychopathology, mental disorders. Eligibility criteria The criteria for inclusion of a trial in the meta-analysis were: The study had to 1 evaluate MCT as developed by Adrian Wells, and 2 have a sample size of at least 10 patients with psychological complaints in the MCT condition. Literature search As this study is an update of a previous meta-analysis Normann et al. Study selection and data extraction After removing duplicates, the titles and abstracts of all search hits were screened, and those that did not fulfill our inclusion criteria were excluded.

Risk of bias assessment We assessed the quality of reporting of each included study with the Risk of Bias tool developed by the Cochrane Collaboration Higgins et al. Statistical analyses plan The meta-analysis was carried out using the software program Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 3. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 1 Study characteristics. Metacognitive therapy Individual therapy was applied in 18 of the trials, whereas a group format was applied in seven studies.

Table 3 Pre- to post-treatment and pretreatment to follow-up effect sizes. Follow-up Out of the 25 studies, 22 had follow-up data that was included in our analyses. Table 2 Risk of bias. Selection bias Detection bias Attrition bias Reporting bias Other bias Study Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding of outcome assessment Incomplete outcome data Selective reporting Other sources of bias Capobianco et al. Figure 2. Between-group effect sizes Figures 3A,B display the pre- to post-treatment effect sizes and forest plots for MCT compared with waitlist and active control conditions for the primary outcome measures.

Figure 3.

Heterogeneity For the pre- to post-treatment within-group effect size on primary outcome measures I 2 was Subgroup analyses The subgroup analyses were undertaken using within-group effect sizes, as no relevant subanalyses could be conducted on between group effect sizes. Publication bias Inspection of the funnel plot depicting the within-group pre- to post-treatment effect sizes for the primary outcome measures revealed an asymmetry indicative of potential publication bias, as the direction of the effect of the smaller trials was toward the right side of the plot, i.

Discussion In this meta-analysis, we set out to investigate whether MCT improves symptoms of psychological complaints on primary and secondary outcome variables in comparison to control conditions. Author contributions NN and NM conceived the study. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

References American Psychiatric Association An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Beck Depression Inventory-II. An inventory for measuring depression. Psychiatry 4 , — Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Capobianco L. Group Metacognitive Therapy vs. Psychiatry Res.


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Beliefs about worry and intrusions: the meta-cognitions questionnaire and its correlates. Anxiety Disord. New York, NY: Routledge. Dammen T.


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